Contract Nr.237/2006; Project type: P-CD


Project code: TEHMEC

Period: 27 months (July 2006 – September 2008)

Project Title: Advanced technologies for development of antifriction, ecological metal-carbon layers 

Project Director: Dr. Cristian P. LUNGU


Coordinator: National Institute of Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (INFLPR), Bucuresti-Magurele


Partner 1

“Politehnica” University, (CESIT) Bucuresti, (UPB),


Project Responsible: Prof. Dr. Andrei TUDOR

Partner 2

National Institute for Aerospace Research "Elie Carafoli" (INCAS), Bucuresti,


Project Responsible: Ing. Gheorghe IONESCU

Partner 3

Research and Development Institute for Gas Turbine COMOTI , Bucuresti,


Project Responsible: Ing. Daniela BUZESCU


Partner 4

SC PLASMAJET SRL, Magurele, Jud. Ilfov


Project Responsible: Ing. Dacia TRUSCA


Partner 5

Bucharest University (UNIV. BUC), Physics Department, Bucuresti,


Project Responsible: Professor Dr. Ion GRUIA


Partner 6

University „Ovidius” Constanta (UNIV.OVIDIUS),


Project Responsible: Professor Rodica VLADOIU


    The achievent of a new technology concerning nanostructured Metal-Carbon film depositions, besides the development of knowledge in the field of mechanical microsistems, opens a wide area of applications with beneficial effects in economy by the possibility of the development of a new cathegory of devices with low friction and increased wear resistance like plain bearings used at high compression engines and moving parts of the machine elements. 

    The research will try to obtain some performance parameters higher than that obtained by clasical devices. Those parameters will be studied experimentally in order to be optimized by fabrication of similar composite structures on planar substrates as well as on cylindrical substrates used in industry.

    The proposed original deposition method, called TVA (Thermionic Vacuum Arc) already used successfully in Romania by the group proposing this project, is to achieve the carbon (or metal) film deposition by mean of plasma running in the pure vapors of the element (carbon or metal). The vapors are resulting by the intense bombardment of graphite (or metal) anode with the electrons emitted by the cathode, made buy a thick W filament externally heated by a current supply. The potential of plasma produced by this way can be adjusted between 50 – 500 V. One can obtain energetic ions of the material to be deposited in order to improve the structural quality of the films.

    Simultaneous depositions of carbon, soft or refractory metals (Ag, Cu, Mo, Ti, Nb, W, etc.) will be prepared by running two TVA discharges (one in C and another in one of the metals) in order to obtain a thick film (over one μm thickness) with low stress and good adherence on substrate. A comparison will be made with silver-graphite coatings prepared by plasma spray. The support will be given by the medium size entreprise PLASMA JET ensuring the usage of plasma spray machine.

Proposed targets/dead lines

Study of the existent TVA solutions on international level. Analysis of the tribological test methods for the antifriction layers manufacture. Simulation using the finite element analysis software. 


Elaboration of a model for the deposition of antifriction layers using the TVA method for applications in automotive industry. The deposition of antifriction layers using TVA method


Design of the experimental devices (specialized TVA guns for each material type) for the in vacuum simultaneous evaporation of carbon and a metal (Ag, Cu, Al).Experimental device design (TVA guns)/ Specification for manufacturing the experimental device of carbon-metal evaporation. Manufacturing the experimental device.


Laboratory experiments for optimization of the antifriction coatings on flat and semicilindric bearings using carbon-soft metals (Ag, Cu, Sn, Al)


Optimization of the vacuum arc plasma intensity distribution and the cylinder substrate conformity in order to obtain a uniform deposition//Uniform composite carbon-metal depositions on half cylinder (plain bearing) surfaces. Improving the tribologic properties of half cylinder elements.


Output: Elaboration of metal-carbon coating methods in order to prepare coatings with improved tribological properties and studies on the involved phenomena.

Dissemination: scientific publications, conferences, website

Fulfilled targets:

There was fulfilled the first target concerning “Study of the existent TVA solutions on international level; Analysis of the tribological test methods for the antifriction layers manufacture; Simulation using the finite element analysis software”, deadline: 30.11.2006

Equipment acquisition:  Was purchased a Ball-on-disc Tribometer, from CSM, Switzerland, a unique device in Romania for tribological characterization of the thin films.





•     D. Buzescu, M. Pascovici, “Bearing Behavior under Unusual Operating Conditions”, 5th EDF and LMS Poitiers Workshop, October 5-6 Poitiers, France, 2006.